Response to NITI Aayog’s Working Document “Enforcement Mechanisms for Responsible #AIforAll”

This response considers the suitability of a risk-based approach to the governance of AI in the Indian context.

The NITI Aayog working document on “Enforcement Mechanisms for Responsible #AIforAll” advocates a flexible and context-specific, risk-based approach to regulating AI which is to be effectuated by an oversight body. The document argues that a one-size-fits-all approach is not sustainable in the light of the rapid growth of AI in the past few years, across diverse industries and sectors in India. While risk-based approaches can rationalize regulatory resources and capacity, these are not value neutral decisions.

Our response to the NITI Aayog’s working document “Enforcement Mechanisms for Responsible #AIforAll” is organised in three parts: part I examines risk-based and principle-based approaches to the regulation of AI, and considers these with regard to alternative and complementary frameworks and approaches; part II examines the role of the oversight body; and part III focuses on the need for upstream management of technological innovation and the role of responsible innovation with regard to AI.


AI & Society


Amrita Vasudevan

Amrita is a Research Fellow at Tandem Research. Her work currently focuses on investigating the intersections of AI and society in the context of the global South. She is interested in understanding the redistributional effects of tech policy in India and situating the politics of big data in developing countries. Her work has previously looked at the regulation of digital technology through a feminist lens. Amrita holds LL.Ms from Yale Law School and the NALSAR University of Law and a BA. LL.B from School of Law, Christ University.

Angelina Chamuah

Angelina Chamuah is a Research Fellow at Tandem Research. Her current work examines the social and ethical implications of AI and other emerging technologies in India. She has been studying the impact of AI in India across different sectors including agriculture, healthcare, policing, and finance. Key to her research are questions of values and interests that drive socio-technological imaginaries of AI and the future of AI governance in India. In addition to AI, her research interests include the role of Big Tech companies in India, politics of data and human-machine interaction. She holds an M.Phil in Sociology and a Masters in Sociology from the Delhi School of Economics, DU.

Urvashi Aneja

Urvashi studies the politics, social impacts, and ethics of technology transitions in the global south. She has written extensively on the challenges and risks of AI in India, the emerging gig economy and labor well-being, data governance and gender and technology. She has served on government committees for artificial intelligence and frontier technologies. Urvashi is also an Associate Fellow at Chatham House, a Tech and Social justice champion at the World Economic Forum, and a former member of the T20 Task Force for the Future of Work in the G20. She regularly writes for national media publications and has been quoted in the BBC, Reuters, CNBC, Times of India, and Indian Express, among others. Previously she was a Research Fellow at the Observer Research Foundation and Associate Professor at the Jindal School of International Affairs. Urvashi has a Doctorate from the Department of Political Science and International Relations at the University of Oxford